Scientific MOOCs follower. Author of Airpocalypse, a techno-medical thriller (Spring 2017)


Welcome to the digital era of biology (and to this modest blog I started in early 2005).

To cure many diseases, like cancer or cystic fibrosis, we will need to target genes (mutations, for ex.), not organs! I am convinced that the future of replacement medicine (organ transplant) is genomics (the science of the human genome). In 10 years we will be replacing (modifying) genes; not organs!


Anticipating the $100 genome era and the P4™ medicine revolution. P4 Medicine (Predictive, Personalized, Preventive, & Participatory): Catalyzing a Revolution from Reactive to Proactive Medicine.


I am an early adopter of scientific MOOCs. I've earned myself four MIT digital diplomas: 7.00x, 7.28x1, 7.28.x2 and 7QBWx. Instructor of 7.00x: Eric Lander PhD.

Upcoming books: Airpocalypse, a medical thriller (action taking place in Beijing) 2017; Jesus CRISPR Superstar, a sci-fi -- French title: La Passion du CRISPR (2018).

I love Genomics. Would you rather donate your data, or... your vital organs? Imagine all the people sharing their data...

Audio files on this blog are Windows files ; if you have a Mac, you might want to use VLC (http://www.videolan.org) to read them.

Concernant les fichiers son ou audio (audio files) sur ce blog : ce sont des fichiers Windows ; pour les lire sur Mac, il faut les ouvrir avec VLC (http://www.videolan.org).


The ghoulfriends are having it their way!

Heath and Deuce didn't show up for physical deaducation today. Everybody kind of wondered what they were up to. Hadn't they told the ghouls that they would not attend physical deaducation courses as long as those remained normies-free? Heath and Deuce did want to have normies jump in. Skultimate roller maze as a monster-only event was a thing from the past. Everybody agreed on that. Why couldn't their physical deaducation teacher just see it? "Too dangerous bla bla..."

The drop dead gorgeous ghouls were dreaming of singing "Best song ever" with nobody less than Niall, Liam, Harry, Zayn and Louis!! Having offered their help on this, Heath, Cleo and Deuce had invited the One Direction boys band for lunch today at the creepeteria!! As soon as Clawdia heard about this, the stunning news, it scared the daylights out of her, and her full-moon-scenery mood was all over the place! She howled at the boys like she would howl at the moon and guess what? There it was! Drop dead gorgeous ghouls and their One Direction normie friends were all having it their way... There are stories you just can't explain... "The story of my life!", said Cleo. Fair enough: she's been around like, forever...

Traitement du cancer : on s'intéressera aux mutations du gène et non plus à l'organe

https://www.facebook.com/catherine.coste

A Cambridge startup called Editas Medicine is developing a technique for repairing faulty DNA

"Gene tests raise murky medical issues"

Cancer treatment in future: targeting mutations, not organs



Have an awesome 2014!

"Cancer treatment in future: Targeting mutations not organs"

Med Revn: targeting gene mutations, no longer organs (organ replacement)

Rewriting our DNA promises amazing benefits, experts say

#MOOC "I hope you can break the myth that 'learning is too hard' & make #edX a brand name like CNN, Xerox, Colgate, Google"

#Genomics made by China in BGI Shenzhen: welcome to the world's largest genetic-research center

http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2014/01/06/140106fa_fact_specter

"Pressroom at DARPA robot challenge"

@markoff

Google in 2014

Multi-gene test could help spot breast cancer patients most at risk

Where will #health #investors put $ in 2014?

The $35 Android tablet for India is coming to the US & @AliveCor ECG works with it!


Investor Event: Where Will the Money Flow in 2014?

"There are >6000 prescription meds but we have genomic information for <2%"

My New Year's Resolution: Getting to Know My Genome Sequence

Eric Topol MD just read my mind ;-)

Cystic Fibrosis Gene Therapy


https://www.facebook.com/catherine.coste
"In-silico experiment of the human CFTR sequence to identify common disease causing mutation and development of small drug therapies for cystic fibrosis." (LINK)

07/2012; In proceeding of: International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology, Volume: 20 
ABSTRACT "Cystic fibrosis, an autosomal recessive genetic disease is associated with the mutation in the human CFTR protein sequence. So understanding of the CFTR Protein’s structure and component’s is important for the development of small drug therapies for cystic fibrosis. To start the experiment, the amino acid sequence of CFTR was obtained from the database and thus analyzed using some available software. The major regions, domains and motifs of the protein were identified. Mutations were evaluated which can potentially cause cystic fibrosis. Based on the analysis we can understand the protein components of the CFTR protein which is important for the development of the small drug therapies. We have presented the structural components of the CFTR protein which is our subject of interest. Then as we know it has a large number of mutations in the gene thus it allows us to evaluate the individual mutations which are responsible for cystic fibrosis. To address specific research question, we identified three disease causing mutations in this gene that are known to be associated with CF. Till now the conventional way of treating cystic fibrosis is by the use of physiotherapy, antibiotics and pancreatic supplements. We can also suggest gene therapy for the CF. We do this by identifying the mutation responsible for the disease and then transferring a normal copy of the CTR gene into the lung of the cystic fibrosis patients. This can be effectively done by using viruses and liposomes. With the development of better new viruses and liposomes these problems can be solved."

Brain Death: when a counter-intuitive definition of death, dating back to the 70s, makes specialists and families clash over it

http://edition.cnn.com/2013/12/28/health/life-support-ethics/index.html
This is just one from many situations where you get to understand that so called "post-mortem" organ donation is a veeeeeeery complicated question. Donating your organs after your death? This would be an absolute no-brainer (no pun intended). But it gets much trickier than that: you donate your vital organs UPON your death. No wonder some people came up with a much simpler definition for "next-of-kin organ donation decision". They call it "sacrifice"...

We just started digitizing the brain... This will probably not make the "brain-death" question/polemic any easier. Digitizing the brain might turn out to be some very good way to disrupt brain death, which "scientific" definition dates back to the 70s and ever since never stopped causing both specialists and families to clash over it. Some MDs just don't believe in "brain death", while some others do. But wait a minute: since when do you have to believe in some scientific stuff? Aren't you supposed to prove it instead? So many ways to die, but... I thought death was kind of unique.

Or did they clone it back to the 70s? I can't wait for 3D bioprinted organs... and, I dunno... Maybe digitizing the brain will add some real scientific stuff to that "brain-death" death thing?...

Témoignage : "Rien n'a été fait pour sauver la jambe de mon père."



https://www.facebook.com/catherine.coste

"In the Battle Over Personal Health Data, 23andMe and the FDA Are Both Wrong"

After the Human Genome Project (mapping the human genome) comes the Human Connectome Project (mapping every neuronal connection in a brain)

"The question is not whether we can upload our brains onto a computer, but what will become of us when we do." The death of brain death?... "Only a few months ago, the British physicist Stephen Hawking speculated that a computer-simulated afterlife might become technologically feasible."
Mapping the human genome - Mapping the human brain

"In some ways, the scientific problem of understanding the human brain is similar to the problem of human genetics. If you want to understand the human genome properly, an engineer might start with the basic building blocks of DNA and construct an animal, one base pair at a time, until she has created something human-like. But given the massive complexity of the human genome — more than 3 billion base pairs — that approach would be prohibitively difficult at the present time. Another approach would be to read the genome that we already have in real people. It is a lot easier to copy something complicated than to re-engineer it from scratch. The human genome project of the 1990s accomplished that, and even though nobody really understands it very well, at least we have a lot of copies of it on file to study.

The same strategy might be useful on the human brain. Instead of trying to wire up an artificial brain from first principles, or training a neural network over some absurdly long period until it becomes human-like, why not copy the wiring already present in a real brain? In 2005, two scientists, Olaf Sporns, professor of brain sciences at Indiana University, and Patric Hagmann, neuroscientist at the University of Lausanne, independently coined the term ‘connectome’ to refer to a map or wiring diagram of every neuronal connection in a brain. By analogy to the human genome, which contains all the information necessary to grow a human being, the human connectome in theory contains all the information necessary to wire up a functioning human brain. If the basic premise of neural network modelling is correct, then the essence of a human mind is contained in its pattern of connectivity. Your connectome, simulated in a computer, would recreate your conscious mind."

The DNA Microcredit Revolution: Donate your Data in India thanks to microcredit


https://www.facebook.com/catherine.coste



Meet the Made-in-India Cancer Genome Project: Donate your DNA data, thanks to microcredit
Microfinance for DNA Data Sharing
Using Microcredit (microfinance) for some made-in-India Human Cancer Genome Project?
Wanna get some better, affordable and personalized medicine?
MICROCREDIT YOUR DNA!

We can donate our vital organs upon our death... Now it seems that we can even donate... our data.

"Our project aims to enable citizens to donate their data upon their death."

http://prayformedicine.blogspot.fr

But... why wait for somebody's death??

I dunno if you are familiar with India and Bangladesh -- well I am a tiny bit. You find people all over the place, willing to sell their hair (women, for the worldwide hair extension market), their blood, a kidney (er that one falls under the organ trafficking category), etc.

Now how about cancer and healthy (but not wealthy) patients who could trade their DNA data for some rice or medicine or... a microloan?

Remember the microcredit (microfinance)? Muhammad Yunus was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2006 for his work providing microcredit services to the poor.

Would you rather give your data, or... a vital organ?

The speed of progress in the human genome science is mind blowing... However, curing cancer will request a lot of sharing work from patients worldwide... India is a good place to start... 

Big Pharma / Big Biotech are both powerful and greedy. Any power calls for a counter-power. With no counter-power at all, "big pharma" is very likely to turn into "pig pharma" -- consuming Chinese human guinea pigs, that is...

"Medical student Pia Grazdani decides to take a year off from her studies and escape New York City. Intrigued by the promise of the burgeoning field of medical technology, Pia takes a job at Nano, LLC, a lavishly funded, security-conscious nanotechnology institute in the picturesque foothills of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado. Nano, LLC is ahead of the curve in the competitive world of molecular manufacturing, including the construction of microbivores, tiny nano-robots with the ability to gobble up viruses and bacteria. But the corporate campus is a place of secrets. When Pia encounters a fellow employee on a corporate jogging path suffering the effects of a seizure, she soon realizes she may have literally stumbled upon one of Nano, LLC's human guinea pigs. Is the tech giant on the cusp of one of the biggest medical discoveries of the twenty-first century – a treatment option for millions – or have they already sold out to the highest bidder?" (Amazon)
http://www.truthdig.com/cartoon/item/made_in_bangladesh_20130509

http://tablenumbersix.wordpress.com/2013/06/17/dna-sequencing-an-opportunity-for-breakthroughs-in-science/

Adding DNA and Geomedicine Data to Patient Records

Here's how some German teacher in France earns herself a MIT certificate in Genomics. Thank you Eric Lander PhD!



https://www.edx.org/course/mitx/mitx-7-00x-introduction-biology-secret-1014
Thank you for this amazing course! I am so proud I could be part of the journey and... earn myself a MIT certificate!! When starting this course back in early September 2013, I had no idea what genomics really was. I only knew one thing for sure: it's the revolution of the century, it's damn important -- so told me dying Steve Jobs and I was terribly impressed as you might imagine -- and I made some kind of life changing decision: I wanna learn... 

Our healthcare system is PATENT centered. How about we try to make it a little bit more PATIENT centered? 

BIG thanks to the MOOC "7.00x" team because this is exactly what you guys do: enabling people who want to learn (but are no scientists, just, say, plain people) to... learn. I will never forget this... I owe you one... 

Now what? I want a job that gets me involved in the science of the human genome. This revolution is happening right under our feet.

==> Take a look at my LinkedIn page here...

In France, citizens are not allowed to get their DNA sequenced if they want to. It is forbidden by law... Wanna talk about the immorality of blocking humans from their own genome?...

Introduction to Biology - The Secret of Life


"Explore the secret of life through the basics of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, recombinant DNA, genomics and rational medicine."

 About this Course


"7.00x is an introductory level biology course hosted by professor Eric Lander, who was one of the leaders of the Human Genome Project. The course content reflects the topics taught in the MIT introductory biology courses and many biology courses across the world. As a student, you will first focus on the structure and function of macromolecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins. You will discover how changes in the structure of some of these macromolecules alters their functions and what the implications of such changes have on human health. As you continue in the course, you will apply an understanding of heredity and information flow within cells to human health and disease and will learn about molecular biological techniques and their potential to impact our changing world. After you complete this course, you will have a foundation in biology that will allow you to understand the remarkable medical revolution going on today.
Students will complete this course in 14 weeks. Each week features a series of lecture sequences that are supported by interactive video tutorials and interspersed exercises or problems. Students will work on a homework assignment or exam each week. The course will conclude with a comprehensive final exam. Additionally, for teachers of science, we have forged a collaboration with the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) to facilitate understanding of challenging content and help with practical classroom applications of the courseware. Visit NSTA/MITx for details. 7.00x – The Secret of Life will let you explore the mysteries of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, recombinant DNA technology and genomics, and rational medicine. We are excited to take this journey with you!"


https://www.edx.org/course/mitx/mitx-7-00x-introduction-biology-secret-1014 

7.00x Course Staff

DNA sequence of human eggs obtained non-invasively. Game changer?

23andMe, FDA and DNA health profiling - La génomique personnelle dans la tourmente



Health Care's Road to Ruin

Science et fiction : "Cliffhanger, le monde dans 1000 ans".

Présentation des auteurs : Diplômée du MIT de Boston, USA, en sciences du génome humain, Catherine Coste (auteur de ce blog) vit et travaille aux USA. Elle est passionnée par les nouvelles technologies en médecine, notamment celles appliquées à la génétique. Isabelle Provost, globe-trotter et maman épanouie, enseignante, ayant vécu en Inde et au Bangladesh, est intriguée par les implications et remous de cette science en train de transformer l'humain. Toutes deux ont écrit ce livre, sous forme de bref dialogue autour d'enjeux cruciaux : demain est déjà là, et mieux vaut s'y préparer ...

Lien vers la boutique Kindle Amazon
Diplômée du MIT en génomique (la science du gène humain), vivant et travaillant aux USA (origines britanniques et germaniques), j'ai voulu parler des opportunités que le futur pourrait nous offrir si nous savions, si nous apprenions à nous organiser ...

Ma co-scénariste Isabelle est Française et enseignante, elle a vécu en Inde et au Bangladesh, avec une conscience aiguë de l'humain, des frontières, manques, ressources et espoirs - et si la science venait à en combler certains ? Pourquoi cet absurde abrégé sur le monde et ses technologies telles qu'elles pourraient être dans 1.000 ans ? Dans cette vidéo, j'explique mes motivations en tant que scientifique et scénariste vivant et travaillant aux USA. Il est urgent de parler de l'avenir aux Français, citoyens d'un pays qui leur interdit de faire séquencer leur génome (prison, amende).


"Cliffhanger, le monde dans 1000 ans"

Software Tools that are being used for MIT Genomics courses

The course-specific software tools are GeneX, IGV, Molecule Editor.

However, you become well acquainted with all of those:

Molecule Editor
jsmol (protein viewer)
IGV (gene and genome viewer)
GeneX (edit a gene)
Designing Proteins in 2-D
jsVGL (virtual genetics lab)

Here are a few print screens. Try to guess which is which... I'm not allowed to show more (hopefully I don't get in trouble for posting this...)

Editing molecules:

Molecule Editor

jsVGL

IGV-Lite, my favorite

Folding and editing proteins
IGV Gene Viewer
JSmol

Surprise!!

MIT Gangnam Style (MIT 강남스타일)

Trafic d'organes : le changement c'est maintenant

Tiens, il se dit que des Français(e)s appauvri(e)s vendent un rein au Japon, pour des patients en attente de greffe et prêts à payer cher (au Japon la mort encéphalique n'est pas reconnue, cela fait toujours débat, donc très peu de prélèvements de reins dits 'post-mortem')...

DIY clinical trials coming soon

"8 Robotics Companies Acquired by Google in Last 6 Months — Humans to Become Obsolete"

Nutriphone enables users to test cholesterol levels, saliva pH, vitamin deficiency

"Scientists build near real-time biosensor for drug response"

Qatar launches genome project

3D-printed skull mimics feel of brain surgery

Have you ever wondered how brain surgeons practice their skills? I know from watching some TV serials that you can donate your body to medical research – thus ending up in some young surgeon trainee’s table. But with our favorite new technology, there is a new way to drill, slice and cut a brain with no casualties! That’s right – New Scientist brings you 3D Printed Skull from the University of Malaysia. "Feels like the real thing..." (Source)

Tablet device + droplet of blood--> dx TB, malaria, HIV <60 min, <1/10 -1/100 $ cost

Welcome!


HIMSS, cette organisation internationale qui veut faire du bien à votre santé (quand l'hôpital vous fait du mal ?)

http://billautshow.tv/Jean-Pierre-Thierry-HIMSS

http://billautshow.tv/Jean-Pierre-Thierry-HIMSS

Still Life MD: Doctor of the past with stethoscope and clipboard

OUR HEALTHCARE SYSTEM IS PATENT CENTERED -- NOT PATIENT CENTERED. BIG PHARMA SICK WITH ADVERTISING DISORDER



Hospitals launch genome sequencing programs to get ready for the future of medicine

Marketing and Patent (not "patient") strategy instead of R&D: no wonder we're running short of new molecules. We just have stopped looking for them...

OUR HEALTHCARE SYSTEM IS PATENT CENTERED -- NOT PATIENT CENTERED:  

"Financing Drug Research: What are the issues?"
==> http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/intellectual_property_2004_09.pdf

How to sequence the human genome - Mark J. Kiel



View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/how-to-sequ...

"Your genome, every human's genome, consists of a unique DNA sequence of A's, T's, C's and G's that tell your cells how to operate. Thanks to technological advances, scientists are now able to know the sequence of letters that makes up an individual genome relatively quickly and inexpensively. Mark J. Kiel takes an in-depth look at the science behind the sequence."

Lesson by Mark J. Kiel, animation by Marc Christoforidis.

TeselaGen, a new venture in Synthetic Biology

Would you rather give your data, or your vital organs?

Doctor on Demand launches as a real-time healthcare mobile video service for patients and physicians

Save My 23



My body, my data.
Copyright infringement madness is a dangerous gene. But it runs around.
Internet and biology are by no means neutral places.
Society should do something about those dangers. If not, biohackers will. For better or/and for worse.

I am a musical writer, but I wanted to take an MIT science class in genomics.
The science of the human genome is a social revolution happening now.

Genomic musical hitting Broadway?

People have to hear about the Human (Cancer) Genome Project.

The Human (Cancer) Genome Project: a beautiful project for 23&Me?...

The Iliad by Homer is a fundamental piece of culture. What if some intellectual property legal right of some kind barred mankind from reading it?

Science and society

http://www.fondsdecran.be/Fonds-d-Ecran-Bandes-Dessinees/Wallpapers-Bandes-Dessinees-Francais/Images-Gaston-Lagaffe/fond-d-ecran-experimentation-gaston-lagaffe.htm
Sometimes society gets a little too enthusiastic about the potential of science and leaps over the details of 'can you do it well?'

DNA forensics, organ transplant... Can you think of some examples? 

The Innocence Project is an organization that uses DNA testing to exonerate wrongfully convicted individuals. The techniques of DNA fingerprinting and genotyping explained in 7.00x are the basis for the DNA testing done. DNA fingerprinting can more reliably exclude a person as a suspect than establish their guilt because it is easier to detect DNA differences than to be sure that all DNA sequences are identical. As a result, DNA fingerprinting is more likely to establish a person’s innocence than to establish their guilt.  

The Innocence Project has led to now the exoneration of more than 300 people, including 17 people on death row who were found to be absolutely innocent. This is possible thanks to the use of molecular biology to look at evidence that had not been analyzed by molecular biology, but it is possible to to so now...

Eric Lander PhD, Geneticist, Member -- as well as worldwide famous writer of legal thrillers John Grisham! -- of "The Innocence Project": Now I was actually delighted that about a month ago [in Apr. 2013] the federal government announced that the Department of Justice and the National Institutes of Standards and Technology would be starting a collaboration to set up groups who would help us steer standards in these areas. Anyway, it's not to say that these aren't powerful things. They are powerful things. But it is to say, and I'll say it quite explicitly, that they are misused routinely. We do not have good standards for these things."

There's no way to have an informed social discussion without scientistsgetting involved...

Should there be a national or international database of everyone’s DNA fingerprint for use in forensics? Why or why not? 

Such a database would be standing more on the side of convicting or framing people. Yet, the technology -- DNA fingerprints -- does a better job in pointing out "false positive". That is: proving that some convicted person is actually innocent. There appears to be a kind of a paradox here. How can we solve it? About genetic relatedness: children of a criminal should not appear in convicted DNA database. Such a database would have to do a better job in pointing out "false positive" cases.
A "false positive" is a great injustice to a person in life.

Eric Lander PhD, Geneticist: "Please share your data! The Cancer Genome Project."

MITx 7.00 MOOC "Intro to Biology - The Secret of Life". Lecture week 13.Instructor: Eric Lander PhD.


Eric Lander, PhD, involved in the Human Genome Project, MIT Professor:

"What has been so cool, in the past four or five years, as we talked about DNA sequencing, it's gotten so cheap that you could sequence every patient's own cancer and compare it to their normal DNA. And find that patient's mutations. And you can imagine a world where every patient will have their genome sequenced and their tumor sequenced. And a physician could use that information, as we collect more of it, to figure out which drugs to be using in which combinations. And that's a world we're all imagining right now, a world where that could happen. It's going to take a lot of work to get there. And in my opinion, it's going to take a lot of sharing.

Because we're going to need information pooled from patients around the world. Because we're going to have to learn which patients respond well to which drugs as a function of which mutations they have. And if they have a relapse and the cancer becomes resistant to the drug, which mutations have happened? We're going to need to pool all that, which means I think we're going to need to have some kind of common, agreed upon data sharing mechanisms where patients can voluntarily-- it's up to them-- but voluntarily say, 'count me in. I'm willing to share my data with other people sharing their data so we can build a big enough data set that we can learn what works best.' And I wouldn't be surprised over the next couple of years we see a kind of alliance across many institutions in the world and patients in many countries to try to create that knowledge base. It's kind of like a human cancer Genome Project, but where it's the humans who are involved who are doing it, or the patients who are doing it. And I think it's going to be a really important thing."

MITx 7.00 MOOC "Intro to Biology - The Secret of Life". Lecture week 13.

Nobel winner declares boycott of top science journals

Trends in mobile healthcare: a Twitter guide

"Involve me and I learn"

FDA: You can’t handle the truth

DNA Forensics: How To Use DNA To Exonerate Wrongfully Convicted People. "The Innocence Project"

DNA Forensics... How to use DNA to exonerate wrongfully convicted people... If the legal system does not allow this, then this can only mean one thing: the system is broken and needs a reboot -- thanks to the science of the human genome. The "Innocence Project" is here to fix things...

The @Wired Smart List for 2013: Eric Topol, cardiologist and geneticist, selects: Stephen Quake -- professor of bioengineering at Stanford

http://thebigone.stanford.edu/index.html

New @Intel Global Survey, N=12,000: 57% think hospitals will be obsolete, 84% are willing to share their medical data

Jumping Into Your Genes

"Rational Medicine in Cancer" - "The Secret of Life" MITx 7.00

What if we can no longer hide from... data? What if people were in charge of their own health? Should we become the risk manager of our own genome? Wouldn't that give us the Wilis, sorry, I meant to say, the willies?

National Ballet’s Giselle: Why the Wilis give you the willies

"In the United States, we see about 1.2 million new cases per year of which half of these people will go on to die from their cancer. Actually, all are going to die, but half of them are going to die from their cancer. And this accounts for, we all die, but half are dying of their cancer, and this accounts for about a quarter of deaths in the United States. This is a serious big deal. Now, when cancers begin to grow, it's a single cell. And a single cell, there-- so, I mean, first off, usually, cancers derive from a single cell. That's the first thing to be said is cancers usually-- and many things I'll say tonight are usually-- usually derive from a single cell that goes bad. And it divides and divides and divides and divides and divides, and it's lost its control of its growth. But you won't know it, because when there's two cells there or 100 cells there, it's way too tiny for you to know. You only can see a cancer in an X-ray when it's about 10 to the 8th cells. So only when you get to about 10 to the 8th cells is it detectable by radiography, for example. By imaging. When It gets to 10 to the 9th cells, you can actually feel it. It's what they say, palpable. So this is on the order of maybe one centimeter or so in diameter. By the time you've got 10 to the 12th cells, the patient is usually dead. So you have all these logs of growth that are essentially invisible, and then these logs of growth can become fatal at that point.

By the way, this indicates why it would be really good if you could detect cancers at 10 to the 4th cells and 10 to the 6th cells. And people are working on ways that they might be able to do that.

Now, these cancer, when I say they derive from a single cell, I also want to say that they arise because of mutations in the genome of a single cell. So the cancers usually arise from mutations in the genome. When you think about it, in your body from the time that you were a fertilized egg to now, you've had a total of about, well, during your lifetime, about 10 to the 16th cell divisions, give or take. That's what you've got; in your life, there's probably 10 to the 16th cell divisions, and the chance of a mutation arising in any particular gene per cell division is about 10 to the minus 6th: this is the chance of a mutation in a given gene. That varies between genes and all that, but that's a good guess. So if you had 10 to the 16th divisions and 1 in 10 to the 6th chance of mutation in a given gene per division, every gene has had mutations in it. Every gene has had mutations in it, despite the impressive fidelity of DNA replication that we talked about earlier in the course, that only one error per 10 to the 9th bases. A gene is 10 to the 3rd bases long. So that's about 1 in 10 to the 6th, and you've got 10 to the 16th divisions. That's a lot. Now, these mutations, most of them are happening during development. Some of them could happen before birth. You could have inherited some critical mutations as well. But the mutations can happen by chance, or you can accelerate your rate of mutations. (...)

Cancers usually start by random mutations in a single cell. Some mutations create a protein that fails to function properly increasing the likelihood for additional mutations. For example, if a protein in the mismatch repair pathway did not function properly, then more mutations would occur during replication. Cancers develop as a result of a variety of mutations. Although mutant forms of some proteins are found more commonly in cancers. Some mutations that occur in one cell can increase the likelihood of additional mutations occurring in the same cell." Eric Lander PhD. "Intro to Biology. The Secret of Life" MITx 7.00 MOOC.

UK to become the 1st country in the world to routinely sequence people’s genomes to... their health records

This anti-aging brain trust is the most interesting startup in Silicon Valley

A life science recruiter: "My First MOOC Course from MIT"

 
Eric Lander PhD, Geneticist, MIT Professor

 Eric Lander PhD is the Instructor of MOOC MITx 7.00 "The Secret of Life - Intro to Biology"

http://clarksearch.com/about/


Ellen Clark is a Life Science Recruiter. She attended MITx 7.00 MOOC -- first session, March to June 2013. Actually the second session of this MOOC is ending in 10 days from now. Ellen tells us about her experience as a MOOC student.

I'm interested in this experience, as I'm a MOOC student too -- same MOOC, by the way, as described here (attending the second session)...

http://clarksearch.com/my-first-mooc-course-from-mit/

http://www.informationweek.com/software/how-to-make-a-mooc-mit-style/d/d-id/1109309

https://www.edx.org/course/mitx/mitx-7-00x-introduction-biology-secret-1014

https://www.facebook.com/700xIntroToBiology

#CDoM

Jack Andraka is writing a book

Did I ever tell you who my hero is? Well, it's Jack Andraka. And since yesterday, my hero is following me on Twitter!!


"'Slowly They Modernize' I thought this picture was a clever joke until I read this."

20% U.S. adults live with 2+ chronic conditions

#HCLDR: a tweet chat that focuses on the professional development of healthcare leaders

The Future of Medicine

"A non-invasive sonogram that can see inside the heart – in 3D- with flow and pressure using a simple eight-minute MRI with computational processing.

They’re testing it now at Stanford and hope it will revolutionize understanding heart failure and helps millions of people."

http://www.morpheusmedical.net

Lowering LDL cholesterol: Will gene therapy become the next Eldorado (exit Statins)?

http://www.nature.com/news/genetics-a-gene-of-rare-effect-1.12773
#CDoM About 35 million PPLE in the US (give or take) are on statins... Will monoclonal antibody to PCSK9 gene replace statins?...

Effect of a Monoclonal Antibody to PCSK9 on LDL Cholesterol

A gene called PCSK9 causes degradation of the LDL cholesterol receptor (Low Density Cholesterol is the bad guy, the one that puts us at risk for a heart attack). An LDL receptor that is properly working allows us to decrease our LDL cholesterol levels.

If this receptor is being degraded, our LDL cholesterol levels will increase (bad news).

"So, how about the complete loss of PCSK9? Turns out that it's not lethal. That's a really important thing. So when drug companies found out that you could actually knock this thing out, and it would be perfectly compatible with life, then that said, this isn't such a risky thing. And a number of companies have made antibodies against PCSK9, and they've been in clinical testing. And here's an example of the effect of a monoclonal antibody to PCSK9 on LDL cholesterol. One injection. That's it, as the antibody then washes out. Decreases quite substantially. Several companies have done this. These haven't yet been approved. I think it's very likely they will be approved. Cool. (...) There are some drugs in clinical testing right now that block that transfer of cholesterol ester from the HDLs (High Density Cholesterol, the good form of cholesterol, that is) to LDLs, and they have a dual effect. They increase HDL and simultaneously lower LDL. They may be very effective, because they're lowering the LDL."

Eric Lander PhD, Geneticist. MITx 7.00x "The Secret of Life", June 2013.

http://www.pace-cme.org/d/224/antibodies-against-pcsk9-a-new-ldl-c-lowering-therapy